Welcome to our latest blog post where we unravel complex statistical mysteries using STATA. At StatisticsHomeworkHelper.com, we understand the challenges students face when dealing with intricate statistical concepts. That's why we're here to provide expert assistance. Today, we'll tackle two master-level statistics questions, offering comprehensive solutions that demonstrate the power of STATA in statistical analysis. Whether you're struggling with hypothesis testing or regression analysis, our expert solutions are tailored to help with statistics homework using STATA.

Question 1: Hypothesis Testing

Let's start with a classic hypothesis-testing scenario involving proportions. Suppose we want to test whether the proportion of successes differs between two independent groups.

Question:

A pharmaceutical company is testing a new drug to reduce cholesterol levels. They administer the drug to two independent groups: Group A, consisting of 100 patients, and Group B, consisting of 120 patients. After the treatment period, they find that 60 patients in Group A experienced a reduction in cholesterol levels, while 72 patients in Group B experienced the same. Can we conclude, at a significance level of 0.05, that the proportion of patients experiencing a reduction in cholesterol levels is higher in Group B than in Group A?

Solution:

To tackle this problem, we can use a two-sample proportion test. The null hypothesis (H0) states that there is no difference in the proportions of successes between the two groups, while the alternative hypothesis (H1) suggests that the proportion of successes in Group B is higher than in Group A.

Let's calculate the test statistic, z, using the formula:

\[ z = \frac{(p_1 - p_2)}{\sqrt{\frac{p(1-p)}{n_1} + \frac{p(1-p)}{n_2}}} \]

Where:

- \( p_1 \) and \( p_2 \) are the sample proportions of successes in Group A and Group B, respectively,

- \( p \) is the pooled sample proportion,

- \( n_1 \) and \( n_2 \) are the sample sizes of Group A and Group B, respectively.

First, let's calculate the pooled sample proportion, \( p \):

\[ p = \frac{x_1 + x_2}{n_1 + n_2} \]

Where \( x_1 \) and \( x_2 \) are the total number of successes in Group A and Group B, respectively.

Plugging in the values:

\[ p = \frac{60 + 72}{100 + 120} = \frac{132}{220} = 0.6 \]

Now, let's calculate the test statistic, z:

\[ z = \frac{(0.6 - 0.5455)}{\sqrt{\frac{0.6(1-0.6)}{100} + \frac{0.6(1-0.6)}{120}}} \]

\[ z = \frac{0.0545}{\sqrt{\frac{0.6(0.4)}{100} + \frac{0.6(0.4)}{120}}} \]

\[ z = \frac{0.0545}{\sqrt{0.024 + 0.0192}} \]

\[ z ≈ \frac{0.0545}{\sqrt{0.0432}} \]

\[ z ≈ \frac{0.0545}{0.2079} \]

\[ z ≈ 0.262 \]

Using a standard normal distribution table, we find that the critical z-value for a one-tailed test at a significance level of 0.05 is approximately 1.645.

Since the calculated z-value (0.262) is less than the critical z-value (1.645), we fail to reject the null hypothesis. There is not enough evidence to conclude that the proportion of patients experiencing a reduction in cholesterol levels is higher in Group B than in Group A.

Question 2: Regression Analysis

Now, let's delve into regression analysis, a fundamental statistical technique used to model the relationship between variables.

Question:

A researcher is interested in examining the relationship between students' study time (in hours) and their exam scores (out of 100). They collect data from 50 students and perform a simple linear regression analysis. The results are as follows:

- Slope (β₁) = 5.2

- Intercept (β₀) = 60

- Coefficient of Determination (R²) = 0.64

Can we conclude that there is a significant linear relationship between study time and exam scores?

Solution:

In simple linear regression, we model the relationship between a dependent variable (exam scores) and an independent variable (study time) using a straight line:

\[ Y = \beta₀ + \beta₁X + ε \]

Where:

- \( Y \) is the dependent variable (exam scores),

- \( X \) is the independent variable (study time),

- \( \beta₀ \) is the intercept,

- \( \beta₁ \) is the slope, and

- \( ε \) is the error term.

The coefficient of determination (R²) measures the proportion of the variance in the dependent variable that is predictable from the independent variable(s).

In this case, the researcher obtained an R² value of 0.64, indicating that 64% of the variance in exam scores can be explained by study time.

To determine whether the relationship between study time and exam scores is significant, we can perform a hypothesis test on the slope coefficient (\( \beta₁ \)).

- Null hypothesis (H0): There is no significant linear relationship between study time and exam scores (i.e., \( \beta₁ = 0 \)).

- Alternative hypothesis (H1): There is a significant linear relationship between study time and exam scores (i.e., \( \beta₁ eq 0 \)).

We can use the t-test for the slope coefficient to test this hypothesis. The test statistic (t) is calculated as:

\[ t = \frac{\beta₁ - 0}{SE(\beta₁)} \]

Where \( SE(\beta₁) \) is the standard error of the slope coefficient.

Given that the researcher obtained a slope coefficient (\( \beta₁ \)) of 5.2, to calculate the standard error, we need additional information such as the sample size and the standard deviation of the independent variable (study time).

Let's assume that the researcher has provided this information, and after calculations, we find that \( SE(\beta₁) = 0.8 \).

Now, we can calculate the t-value:

\[ t = \frac{5.2 - 0}{0.8} = 6.5 \]

At a significance level of 0.05, with 48 degrees of freedom (50 students - 2 parameters estimated), the critical t-value for a two-tailed test is approximately ±2.011.

Since the calculated t-value (6.5) is much larger than the critical t-value (±2.011), we reject the null hypothesis. There is sufficient evidence to conclude that there is a significant linear relationship between study time and exam scores.

In conclusion, whether you're navigating hypothesis testing or regression analysis, STATA proves to be an invaluable tool

for statistical analysis. If you need help with statistics homework using STATA or want to deepen your understanding of statistical concepts, StatisticsHomeworkHelper.com is here to assist you every step of the way. Stay tuned for more expert insights and sample solutions on our blog!